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**#**

## 100 Board

Subject: Math

Purpose of Materials:

- To reinforce understanding of sequence of numbers 1 to 10,
- To reinforce understanding of terms ending in teen and of twenty, thirty, forty, etc.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing square chips all laid out and filling the square board,
- Seeing only 10’s in one horizontal row, 20’s in another, etc.,
- Seeing that all chips ending in the units 1,2,or 3, etc. appear one under another in a vertical row on the board.

Pratice at home resource, click here

## 30 Board

Subject: Math

Purpose of Materials:

- To reinforce understanding of sequence of numbers 1 to 10,
- To reinforce understanding of terms ending in teen of twenty and thirty,
- Preparation for linear counting up to 100.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing square chips all laid out and filling the board
- Seeing only 10’s in one horizontal row, 20’s in another, etc.

Pratice at home resource/idea:

- Create a print out of 30 board with blank squares
- Alternately, you may also create a 30 board and print it out with numbers.
- Print out another set of numbers and cut them out individually.
- Have your child match the numbers to the board or place them on the board in order-1-30.

## 4-digit Addition (Static and Dynamic)

Subject: Math

Purpose of Materials(Static):

- To develop the concept of addition (the sum of two positive numbers is always bigger than each addend),
- To understand the visual representation of the meaning of addition,
- To learn the meaning of mathematical terms such as plus, equal, addends, sum, etc.,
- To reinforce understanding of numbers and their place value.

Purpose of Materials(Dynamic):

- To learn the concept of exchange used in dynamic addition.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing two sets of small numeral cards laid out in order.
- Seeing the bank with large numeral cards and golden bead materials.
- Seeing unit cards on the right, then tens, hundreds and thousands in order to the left.
- Counting the quantities and checking it with symbols.
- Adding quantities and seeing the addition problem made by cards.
- Exchanging 10 units for a 10 bar, 10 bars for a 100 square and 100 squares for a 1000 cube.

## 4-digit Division

Subject: Math

Purpose of Materials (Static):

- To develop the concept of division.
- To understand the visual representation of the meaning of division.
- To learn the mathematical terms of divisor, quotient and dividend.

Purpose of Materials (Dynamic):

- To learn the concept of exchange used in dynamic division.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing the quantity divided among three children evenly.
- Seeing that each child has the same number of small numerals.
- Seeing the problem with the division and equal signs.
- Seeing the problem with the original number in large numerals and the “answer” in small numerals.
- For Dynamic division, students are visually seeing the exchange of 1000 to ten 100’s.
- Students work the problem with the 1000’s first, then 100’s and so on.
- Seeing the quantity distributed evenly with a remainder.

## 4-digit Multiplication

Subject: Math

Purpose of Materials:

- To develop the concept of multiplication(product is always bigger than the multiplicand and the multiplier)
- To understand the visual representation of the meaning of multiplication.
- To learn the mathematical terms of times, multiplicand, multiplier and product.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing multiplication problem made by quantities.
- Seeing multiplication problem made by symbols.
- Seeing the problem with the times and equals signs.
- Seeing the problem with large numerals only used for answer.

## 4-digit Subtraction

Subject: Math

Purpose of Materials:

- To develop the concept of subtraction (the remainder and subtrahend are always smaller than the minuend).
- To understand the visual representation of the meaning of subtraction.
- To learn the meaning of the mathematical terms minus, minuend, subtrahend, remainder and difference.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing the subtraction problem made by the quantities.
- Seeing the subtraction problem made by the symbols.
- Seeing larger number at the top of the problem and the smaller below.
- Seeing size of cards correspond to size of quantities.
- Seeing the problem with the minus and equals signs.

## 45 Layout

Subject: Math

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- To learn the hierarchy of the numbers in the decimal system.
- To associate quantity and symbol.
- To learn to put numbers of larger quantity into sequence.
- To learn the place value of zero.
- To prepare for composition of complex numbers.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- To prepare for the four operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
- Preparation for Algebra and Geometry.
- Developing order, concentration, coordination and independence.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing the quantity growing from right to left.
- Seeing the material growing in quantity from small beads to large cubes.
- Seeing the numeral cards grow from 1 place numbers to 4.
- Seeing the vertical columns of bead material.
- Carrying the cubes from shelf to rug.
- Feeling the weight of the cubes increase as the number increases, from 1 thousand to 9 thousand.

## 50 Board

Subject: Math

Purpose of Materials:

- To reinforce understanding of sequence of numbers 1 to 10.
- To reinforce understanding of terms ending in teen and of twenty, thirty, forty etc.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing square cut outs all laid out and filling the board.
- Seeing only 10’s in one horizontal row, 20’s in another etc.
- Seeing that all square cut outs ending in the units 1,2,or 3, etc. appear one under another in a vertical row on the board.

**A**

## Adjectives

Subject: Language

Purpose of Materials:

- To learn the function of an adjective.
- To prepare for sentence analysis and grammar.
- To prepare for sentence composition.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing and hearing descriptive words added to nouns.
- Seeing that adjectives are printed on royal blue cards and placed in front of noun cards.

## Articles

Subject: Language

Purpose of Materials:

- To learn the purpose of the definite and indefinite article.
- To prepare for sentence analysis and grammar.
- To prepare for sentence composition.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing and hearing that there are two different articles each of which has a particular use.

**B**

## Baric Tablets

Subject: Sensorial

Purpose of Materials:

- Development of the baric sense-the child learns to feel the difference of pressure or weight of different objects.
- Preparation for language- using descriptive words like heavy, medium, light.

Points of interest for the child:

- Weighing other objects on the tips of the fingers.
- Weighing these same objects on a scale.
- Weighing various objects on a balance scale.

## Bead Stair

Subject: Math

Purpose of Materials:

- To reinforce knowledge of quantity of numbers.
- To learn the names of the numbers one to ten.
- To learn quantity as one entity.
- To reinforce knowledge of relationship between numbers one to nine.
- To show that each number is made of other numbers.
- To prepare the child sensorially to use the bead material later on a mathematical level.
- Preparation of the mathematical mind.
- Preparation for the decimal system.
- To develop order, concentration, coordination and independence.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing the colors of the bead bars and seeing that each is different.
- Seeing the beads held in bar shape by a rigid wire with loops on each end.
- Counting the small beads.

## Bead Stringing

Subject: Practical Life

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Order
- Coordination
- Concentration
- Independence

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Learning to place objects on a string.
- Langauge Development – Lace, Knot, Lancing End

Extensions:

- Stringing other materials such as noodles, popcorn, berries etc.

Control of Error:

- Seeing the beads fall off the lace
- Size of beads and lace

Points of interest for the child:

- Attractive beads.
- Movement of arm when removing the beads.
- Winding lace on hand when putting the activity away.

## Binomial Cube

Subject: Sensorial

Purpose of Materials:

- Development of visual discrimination in a three dimensional form.
- Development of concentration.
- Preparation for the mathematical concepts involved in the binomial theorem.

Control of error:

- The size of the box is such that the prisms will fit only if they are placed correctly.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing the pattern painted on the box lid.
- Seeing the pattern repeated on the top and sides of the lid.
- Seeing the repetition of the pattern on each layer.
- Noticing the color, size and shape of the various cubes and prisms.
- Touching the colors, which match and join the prisms on identical sides.

## Blue Constructive Triangles

Subject: Sensorial

Purpose of Materials:

- Development of visual discrimination of plane form.
- Preparation of mathematics in the area of geometry.
- To show the different shapes made with a triangle.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing shapes come together and naming them.
- Encouraging creativity to construct different shapes with the triangles.

Video Resource:

## Brown Stairs/Broad Prisms

Subject: Sensorial

Purpose of Materials:

- Development of visual discrimination of width.
- Development of concentration and independence.
- Development of sensory motor control.
- Preparation of the mathematical mind.

Points of interest for the child:

- The brown stair is like the pink tower in that there is an orderly progression of stairs.
- The brown stair is unlike the pink tower in that we build in a horizontal instead of vertical direction.
- The stairs of the brown stair are all the same length but differ in width and height.

**C**

## Classification

Subject: Language

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Development of visual discrimination.
- Development of oral language.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation for reading.
- Preparation for visual discrimination of letters.

Points of interest for the child:

- Interacting with different objects and pictures.
- Feeling the different objects.
- Hearing the names of the different objects and pictures.
- Understanding the concrete (object) and abstract (flat pictures) form.

## Clock

Subject: Math

Purpose of Materials:

- To learn to read the clock.
- To learn the different terminology related to clock- hour, half hour, quarter hour etc.

Points of interest for the child:

- To be able to read time and feel successful.

## Color Box 1

Subject: Sensorial

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Development of visual discrimination of primary colors.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation for letter recognition through the development of visual discrimination.

Control of Error:

- Putting colors that are not the same together

Points of interest for the child:

- Matching the colors that look the same.
- The color of the tablets.

Pratice at home resources:

- Use primary color thread spools to reinforce recognition.
- Have the child match the primary colors to other objects available in the environment.
- Have the child match the primary colors through verbal directions given
- Here is a link to a website that gives you an idea to make color tablets at home

## Color Box 2

Subject: Sensorial

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Development of language by learning the names of the secondary colors.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation for letter recognition through visual discrimination.

Control of Error:

- Misnaming the colors

Points of interest for the child:

- The color of the tablets

Pratice at home resource

- Here is a link to a website that gives you an idea to make color tablets at home
- You can also find some ideas on Pinterest that show alternatives that you could do at home with your child. Click here for an example

## Color Box 3

Subject: Sensorial

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Development of the chromatic sense through the visual discrimination of color.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation for letter recognition.
- Language Development
- Names of all the colors.
- Descriptive words: light, lighter, lightest, etc.

Control of Error:

- Seeing a darker tint mixed in with a lighter tint.

Points of interest for the child:

- The sense of progression from dark to light and light to dark.

Pratice at home resources:

- Here is a link to a website that gives you step by step directions to make color tablets at home

## Coloring/Art Activities

Subject: Art

Purpose of Materials:

- Coloring exercise builds concentration
- Helps maintain control over fine motor skills
- Preparation for writing
- Allows exploration, creativity, free expression and self-development
- Incorporating art and literature through various activities

Art in the Montessori environment:

- Art is one of the many ways children express themselves.
- Art is a way for children to communicate their feelings. It is through art that children develop their fine motor skills.
- In the Montessori environment, we provide open-ended art activities that help children explore and use their creativity.
- When it comes to art, it is the process not the product that is important to the child. As adults, our goal is to produce a product. The child interacts with the world differently. The child works to develop self. The focus is on the process not the product. Once a child creates something, he does not feel the need to keep the product. It is the process that gives him satisfaction and inner joy.
- In addition to having an “art” area in the classroom, we prepare children for both writing and expressive drawing by providing materials they can freely choose throughout the entire classroom.
- Children are encouraged to explore outline and color with the Metal Insets.
- When children write in their journals, they often illustrate the story.
- When they do research, children draw a picture of their subject.
- We also incorporate art into our continent studies. Children love to draw and then paint the continent puzzle maps.
- Through Artist of the month, they learn to use different mediums of art and expression.

## Consonant Phonograms

Subject: Language

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- To learn the beginning consonant blends.
- To refine child’s auditory sense.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Reinforcement of letter sounds.
- Preparation for reading, writing and spelling.

Control of Error:

- Seeing too many or too few cards in a row.
- Hearing a picture’s name beginning with a different blend than that on the blending card.

Points of interest for the child:

- Hearing and seeing two consonants blend together.

## Constructive Triangles – Triangle box

Subject: Sensorial

Purpose of Materials:

- Development of the visual discrimination of the plane form.
- To show the various plane figures included in a hexagon.
- Preparation for mathematics in the area of geometry.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing shapes come together and naming them.
- Seeing the black lines mapped to bring about a new shape.

Video Resource:

**D**

## Dry Pouring

Subject: Langauge

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Order
- Coordination
- Concentration
- Independence

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Learning to pour without spilling.
- Manual dexterity.
- Eye-hand coordination.

Variations:

- Changing materials for pouring.
- Changing vessels for pouring.

Control of Error:

- Seeing the spilled objects on the tray or table.
- Seeing that the vessels are touching.
- Having materials strewn about.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing the objects in the vessel.
- Lifting the vessel and pouring objects.
- Taking care not to spill any objects.
- Repeating the pouring as many times as needed.
- Vessel being poured in to should be held with opposite hand.

**E**

## Estimation

Subject: Math

Purpose of Materials:

- To learn about units of measurement.
- To learn about different types of quantity.
- Identifying that different object of the same quantity can take up the volume of a container differently.
- Helps students conceptualize and mentally manipulate numbers.
- Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
- Attend to precision.
- Look for and make use of structure.
- Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

Points of interest for the child:

- Use different objects and containers to learn estimation.

**F**

## Fabric Matching

Subject: Sensorial

Purpose of Materials:

- Development of the tactile sense.
- Preparation of writing.

Points of interest for the child:

- Variation of the texture of the materials.
- Sensation of feeling like textures blindfolded.

## Formation of Numbers

Subject: Math

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- To learn to read complex numbers.
- To learn to read zero as a place holder.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation for the four operations.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing the numbers created and reading them.

Video Resource:

## Fraction

Subject: Math

General:

Any time the child is working with a whole that will be broken in to parts, the teacher can introduce the concept of Fractions. For instance, when the children are having pizza, the group can discuss the whole that is being broken up in to parts. If the pizza is divided in to eight parts, the children can be told that they are each eating one of the eight parts and so, one-eighth.

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- To help the child gain a sensorial impression of a fraction.
- Introduction to the concept and notation of fractions.
- Sensorial exploration of equivalency among fraction.
- Introduction to simple operations.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Language Development – Whole, Part, Numerator, Denominator

Control of Error:

- The directress

**G**

## Geometric Solids- Cube, Cone, Cylinder etc.

Subject: Sensorial

Purpose of Materials:

- Development of visual discrimination of three-dimensional forms.
- Development of language by naming the shapes.
- Preparation for mathematics by naming the shapes.

Points of interest for the child:

- Feeling of the different shapes.
- Associating the name with the shape.
- Exactness with which shape will fit on the base.

## Go together cards

Subject: Language

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Development of visual discrimination.
- Development of oral language.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation for reading.
- Preparation for visual discrimination of letters.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing things that go together.

**H**

## Handwashing

Subject: Practical Life

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Order
- Coordination
- Concentration
- Independence
- Finger and hand muscle development

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Develop sense of personal cleanliness.
- Understanding the importance of cleanliness.
- Growth in the child’s ability to work in a sustained and concentrated way.

Control of Error:

- Seeing spilled water on table and floor.
- Seeing and feeling soap suds.
- Feeling slippery hands when picking up basin (if not dried).
- Seeing unclean hands when finished.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing dirty hands become clean.
- Seeing that water is not spilled.
- Feeling of water and soap.

**I**

## Introduction Tray – 1000, 100,10,1

Subject: Math

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- To familiarize the child with the material, symbols and its names.
- To introduce the child to the place value system with concrete representation.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation for addition, multiplication, division and subtraction.
- Developing order, concentration, coordination and independence.

Control of Error:

- The directress.

Points of interest for the child:

- Using the golden bead material.

**J**

*No Entries*

**K**

## Knobbed Cylinders

Subject: Sensorial

Purpose of Materials:

- Development of visual discrimination of graduations of size.
- Development of judgement of size through discrimination of graduations of thickness and height.
- Development of concentration and independence.
- Preparation for letter recognition and mathematics through the development of visual discrimination.

Control of error:

- Seeing the unevenness of cylinders either horizontally or vertically.

Points of interest for the child:

- The differences in the grading of each box.

Video Resource:

## Knobless Cylinders

Subject: Sensorial

Purpose of Materials:

- Development of visual discrimination of graduations of size.
- Development of judgement of size through discrimination of graduations of thickness and height.
- Development of concentration and independence.
- Preparation for letter recognition and mathematics through the development of visual discrimination.

Control of error:

- Seeing the unevenness of cylinders either horizontally or vertically.

Points of interest for the child:

- The differences in the grading of each box.

Video Resource:

**L**

## Large Hexagon Box

Subject: Sensorial

Purpose of Materials:

- Development of the visual discrimination of the plane form.
- To show that various triangles can be joined to create new forms.
- Preparation for mathematics in the area of geometry.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing shapes come together and naming them.
- Seeing the black lines mapped to bring about a new shape.

Video Resource:

## Letter Formation/Handwriting

Subject: Language

Indirect Preparation – development of eye-hand coordination, muscular coordination and control, strengthen fingers, left to right movement and strengthen hand and wrist.

- Practical life area- stringing beads, scooping, tong exercises, eye dropper exercises, polishing, scrubbing, etc.
- Sensorial Area- Pink tower, geometric cabinet, knobbed cylinders, rough and smooth boards, etc.

Direct Preparation:

- Language Area – metal insets, auditory games, sandpaper letters, moveable alphabet and art area.The sequence for writing begins when the child shows that he has adequate fine motor skills to hold a pencil and make firm lines. The child can trace the movement of each letter first on the sandpaper letters. Then he/she make the letters independently in trays filled with sand or rice. The chalkboard may also be used at this time. If the child is still writing too large and is unable to write within the lines, he/she is encouraged to trace and practice on the chalkboard.

## Long Chains – Cube of a Number

Subject: Math

Purpose of Materials:

- To reinforce counting in sequence.
- To reinforce knowledge of the hierarchy of numerals.
- To teach 1000 in linear form.
- To teach the relationship of linear quantities of 100 to 1000.
- To teach the relationship of linear quantities of 100 and 1000 to the 1000 cube.
- To teach the square and cube on 10.
- To prepare for skip counting.
- To prepare for more abstract exercises in mathematics.

Control of Error:

- Seeing the tags out of sequence when pointing to the bead chain.
- Hearing the numbers not counted in correct sequence.
- Seeing tags left over at the end of the exercise.
- Seeing numerals on tags upside down.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing the length of the long chains.
- Carrying the chains with circles over the index finger.
- Seeing the number tags on the rug in sequence when the 1000 chain is taken up to fold into a cube.

## Long Vowel Phonograms- ai, ae, ay, ee, ei, ea, ui, etc.

Subject: Language

Purpose of Materials:

- To learn the various phonetic elements used in words.
- To learn to read.
- To enrich the child’s vocabulary.

Control of Error:

- The directress checking the work.
- Seeing the control word cards not matching words that the child has built.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing and hearing the one long a word.
- Seeing and hearing new two letter digraph combinations.

**M**

## Matching

Subject: Language

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Development of visual discrimination.
- Development of oral language.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation for reading.
- Preparation for visual discrimination of letters.

Sequence of Matching:

- Object-to-object matching.
- Object-to-picture matching.
- Picture-to-picture matching.

Control of Error:

- Seeing that the object does not match with the picture/object.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing the different objects/pictures.
- Feeling the different objects.
- Hearing the names of the objects.

## Money

Subject: Math

Montessori education is a hands-on approach. The students learn about money by dealing with coins- penny, nickel, dime and dollar. The teacher will use real money to help children learn to handle and use them in the classroom. Students work with worksheets where they are given scenarios to calculate the amount/answer. They have a lot of different worksheets they work with to calculate the answers. There is no particular Montessori material that they work with. They incorporate using and calculations in different Montessori or teacher made materials.

Children find it very fascinating that they are able to work with real money and feel very important to do so.

**N**

## Nouns

Subject: Langauge

Purpose of Materials:

- To learn that a noun is a naming word.
- To prepare for sentence analysis.
- To prepare for coin position of sentences.

Extensions:

- Write out noun cards for materials in the environment and ask each child to place beside its corresponding material.
- Explain that nouns also include people. Family members and children in the room can be used as examples of nouns.
- Place familiar nouns in basket or tray (all farm, all family together, etc.) so children can read as they please.

Control of Error:

- The directress.
- Observing other children.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing and hearing that there is a name, “noun”, for all names of all objects.
- Seeing that an object can be a “noun” and also have its own name.

**O**

## One-to-One Correspondence

Subject: Math

- One-to-One Correspondence – this skill is the basis for counting. For each unit there is a corresponding label or word. Unless the child has a firm grounding in one-to-one correspondence, he/she is not really counting but repeating what he hears.

- Comparing – the child is able to sensorially discriminate likenesses and differences, sorting those objects (sounds, smells, etc.) into what is alike and what is different. The child also learns to categorize.

- Set – the child, who understands set, understands that five is five, whether the five is lined up or randomly placed in a circle.

- Counting
*Cardinal Numbers*– these are the normal”one,two,three” numbers which most people associate with counting and number.

*Ordinal Numbers*– ordinal numbers are used in sequencing. They are numbers such as first, second, third. A quick way to teach these numbers is by using the calendar every morning.

*Counting On*– this skill means that the child can start counting somewhere in the middle and go on counting. This will familiarize the child with the sequence of number and aid him later on when he is adding and subtracting.

**P**

## Phrases/Short Vowel Words/Sentences with Moveable Alphabet

Subject: Language

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- To learn to blend a consonant with a vowel.
- To introduce the child to building three letter phonetic words.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- To reinforce letter sounds and building.
- To prepare for writing phrases and sentences.
- To prepare for reading.

Sequence of the Moveable Alphabet:

- Forming three letter words with objects and moveable letters.
- Forming three letter words with pictures and moveable letters.
- Forming phrases with objects.
- Forming phrases with pictures.
- Forming a meaningful sentence with objects and then pictures.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing and hearing two sounds blend together.
- Working with small objects.
- The sound of the words and matching letters with those sounds.

## Pink Tower

Subject: Sensorial

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Development of visual discrimination of differences in size.
- Development of concentration and independence.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation of the mathematical mind.
- Ten cubes as a preparation of the decimal system.
- 8 of the smallest cube make the second cube.
- 27 of the smallest cube make the third cube.
- 64 of the smallest cube make the fourth cube.
- 1000 of the smallest cube make the tenth cube.

- Language development – introduction of words like small, large and the comparatives and superlatives.

Control of Error:

- The toppling of the tower if the cube is placed in the wrong place.
- The visual disharmony that results when it is not built in the correct order.

Points of interest for the child:

- The progression from largest to smallest.
- The exactness with which the cubes are placed on one another.
- The completion with the tiniest cube on top.

Additional Resources:

Here is a link that shows you a variation that students use when they are introduced to various sensorial materials including the pink tower

Video Resource:

## Polishing

Subject: Practical Life

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Order
- Concentration
- Coordination
- Independence

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Learning how to polish silver, other metal and glass items.
- Language Development – Polishing

Variations:

- Polish mirrors, brass, jewelry, shoes etc.

Control of Error:

- Line or marks on the item.
- Too much polish in the dish.
- Dull silver.
- Polish left on silver.

Points of interest for the child:

- Beauty of old antiques and shiny silver.
- Using materials that the child sees around the house.

## Pre-writing Activities/Metal Insets

Subject: Language

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation for writing.
- To acquire control and coordination.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- To develop the chromatic sense.
- To develop an appreciation of geometric shapes.
- To develop the mathematical mind.

List of Pre-writing activities that the students work with:

- Sandpaper letters.
- Sand tray – tracing letters with fingers.
- Large chalkboard using dry erase markers.
- Small chalkboard using dry erase markers.

Control of Error:

- Seeing the paper, frame or inset uneven.
- Seeing the frame or inset move while tracing.
- Seeing both lines the same color.
- Seeing the lines going beyond the outline.
- Seeing too heavy or too light of a stroke on the paper.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing the finished colored geometric design.

## Push Pin

Subject: Art

Push Pinning helps children develop their pincer grip, co-ordination, and concentration. A child must be able to sit and focus, be ready to handle a sharp object without hurting themselves or others, and show interest in the activity. Push pinning can be used to create a variety of arts and crafts and extension lessons in culture, for ex- puzzle maps.

It’s helpful to offer young children (3-4yrs) the shapes for them to push pin as they may not be ready to trace their own. Older children (5-6yrs – those who have the ability to carefully trace around shapes) can prepare their own shapes using the Montessori classroom materials: metal insets, geometry cabinet shapes, fraction pieces, puzzle maps, etc. Or, they can draw their own shapes freehand, push pin them, glue them on a sheet of paper and create a beautiful picture.

Points of interest for the child:

If the child is gripping the push pin too hard their hand will cramp and tire quickly. It’s important for children to learn the pincer grip, but also to learn the correct amount of pressure required to push pin for an extended period of time (concentration).

The Mind-Hand Connection:

In order to prepare the hand for fluid and beautiful cursive writing (or printing), the mind-hand connection must be made repeatedly. Push pinning is an excellent activity to prepare the mind-hand connection.

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**Q**

*No Entries*

**R**

## Recognition 0-5 Sandpaper Numbers

Subject: Math

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- To learn the names of the numerals from 0-5.
- To develop the tactile and kinesthetic senses for writing.
- To prepare the hand for writing numerals.
- To train the eyes to recognize numerals.
- To develop control and coordination of movement.
- To associate symbol with the name.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation of the mathematical mind.
- Order, concentration, coordination and independence.

Control of Error:

- Feeling the smoothness of the board instead of the rougher sandpaper indicates incorrect tracing of the numeral.
- Feeling the roughness of the sandpaper caused by pressing too hard.
- Learning the correct name of the symbol.

Points of interest for the child:

- The feel of the sandpaper and board.
- The contrast between the color of the background and the sandpaper.
- Tracing the numerals.
- Using only two fingers to trace.
- Developing awareness that the numeral should be traced from top to bottom.
- Noting the sequence of numerals.
- Developing awareness that each symbol has a name.
- Learning to count.

## Recognition 0-10 Sandpaper Numbers

Subject: Math

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- To learn the names of the numerals from 0-10.
- To develop the tactile and kinesthetic senses for writing.
- To prepare the hand for writing numerals.
- To train the eyes to recognize numerals.
- To develop control and coordination of movement.
- To associate symbol with the name.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation of the mathematical mind.
- Order, concentration, coordination and independence.

Control of Error:

- Feeling the smoothness of the board instead of the rougher sandpaper indicates incorrect tracing of the numeral.
- Feeling the roughness of the sandpaper caused by pressing too hard.
- Learning the correct name of the symbol.

Points of interest for the child:

- The feel of the sandpaper and board.
- The contrast between the color of the background and the sandpaper.
- Tracing the numerals.
- Using only two fingers to trace.
- Developing awareness that the numeral should be traced from top to bottom.
- Noting the sequence of numerals.
- Developing awareness that each symbol has a name.
- Learning to count.

## Rectangular Box

Subject: Sensorial

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Development of visual discrimination of plane forms.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation of mathematics in the area of geometry.
- Language Development – students learn the shapes- triangle, rectangle, parallelogram, rhombus and trapezoid.

Control of Error:

- Seeing that the proper shapes cannot be made if black lines are not matched.

Points of interest for the child:

- Touching and mapping the black lines.
- Working with an increasingly larger assortment of triangles.
- Naming the figures formed by the triangles.

Video Resource:

## Red Rods

Subject: Sensorial

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Development of visual discrimination of length.
- Development of concentration and independence.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation of the mathematical mind.
- Language Development – toward the end of the child’s work with the materials, long-short and their comparatives and superlatives.

Control of Error

- The visual disharmony that results when the rods are not placed according to length.

Points of interest for the child:

- How the rods increase or decrease in length.
- The movement of the smallest rod to show the difference in length between each rod.
- The span of the arms when carrying the longest rod in comparison with the small muscle use in carrying the smallest rod.

Video Resource:

## Red and Blue Rods/Numerical Rods

Subject: Math

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- To learn the quantity of numbers 1-10.
- To learn the names of the numbers 1-10.
- To associate the name and the quantity of numbers one to ten.
- To learn quantity as one entity.
- To learn the relationship between numbers one to ten.
- To show that each number is made up of other numbers.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation of the mathematical mind.
- Preparation for the decimal system.
- Order, concentration, coordination and independence.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing the rods in a stair on the shelf.
- Carrying the rods one at a time using both hands.
- Noting the increasing or decreasing size of each rod.
- Discovering that the first segment of the rod is always red but that the rods end in red or blue.
- Noting that as the numbers get larger, the rods get longer.
- Learning that each rod is one piece but represents more than one.

## Rhyming Words

Subject: Language

Purpose of Materials:

- To decode phonetic rhyming words.
- To recognize patterns of written rhyming words.

Control of Error:

- Listening for a match with the middle and ending sounds (i.e. bat or cat )

Points of interest for the child:

- Decoding words.
- Listening for patterns in the rhyming words.

## Rough and Smooth Boards

Subject: Sensorial

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Development of the tactile sense.
- Tactile discrimination between rough and smooth.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation for writing.
- Language Development – using descriptive terms: rough, smooth and comparatives and superlatives. Names of the different types of paper used on the fourth board.

Control of Error:

- Feeling two different types of surfaces because the fingers are not within the limits of one strip.

Points of interest for the child:

- Different qualities in each of the boards.
- Names and descriptions of the different types.

**S**

## Scrubbing

Subject: Practical Life

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Order
- Concentration
- Coordination
- Independence

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Learning to scrub a table and other items.

Variations:

- Washing chairs and shelves.

Control of Error:

- Bubbles, water or dirt left on the table.

Points of interest for the child:

- Making bubbles.
- Scrubbing motion.
- Clean table.

Video Resource:

## Short Chains – Square of a Number

Subject: Math

Purpose of Materials:

- To reinforce counting in sequence.
- To reinforce knowledge of the hierarchy of numerals.
- To teach 100 in linear form.
- To teach the relationship of linear quantities up to 100.
- To teach the square of 10.
- To prepare for skip counting.
- To prepare for more abstract exercises in mathematics.

Purpose of Materials:

- Seeing the tags out of sequence when pointing to the bead chain.
- Hearing the numbers not counted in correct sequence.
- Seeing tags left over at the end of the exercise.
- Seeing numerals on tags upside down.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing the length of the short chains.
- Seeing the number tags on the rug in sequence of the 100 chain.

## Sight Words

Subject: Language

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- To develop visual memory of non-phonetic words.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- To prepare for reading.

Control of Error:

- The teacher hearing and listening to the words being spelled.

Points of interest for the child:

- Hearing and remembering new words.

## Simple Addition (single digit)

Subject: Math

Purpose of Materials:

- To learn addition with both concrete and abstract material.
- To prepare for addition with abstract material only.

Extensions:

- Other materials may be substituted for the bead bars such as shells, buttons etc.
- Writing equations, adding the numerals, then verifying them.
- Use 3 stairs with 10 bead bars for addition.
- Use three addends.

Control of Error:

- Seeing the bars, which should make equals not equal in length.
- Seeing the bars in the equation not matching the numerals.
- Seeing the answer on the Addition control chart does not match that with the bead bars.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing addition done with a different material (beads, table top rods etc.).
- Seeing equals.
- Seeing and hearing the equation with the sign.
- Seeing the exercise done with two different materials, bead bars and then table top rods.
- Eventually learning that one can add mentally without using the materials.

## Simple Division (single digit)

Subject: Math

Purpose of Materials:

- To learn to construct division problems.
- The realization that division is the reverse of multiplication.
- To help the child understand that division means equal sharing.
- Practice for memorization.
- Preparation for long division.

Control of Error:

- The number of beads and number of skittles.
- Seeing that all the skittles do not have an equal amount of beads.
- Having more than 9 beads as a remainder.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing each skittle get the equal.
- Seeing the pattern made by the beads.
- Writing the equation.
- Seeing the remainder.
- Counting the beads.
- Placing the remainder beads in the cup or container.

## Simple Multiplication (single digit)

Subject: Math

Purpose of Materials:

- Practice multiplication.
- Visual presentation of multiplication tables.
- Preparation for geometry and algebra.

Control of Error:

- Counting the quantities.
- Comparing the quantities of beads.
- The number of bead bars in the boxes.
- Multiplication chart.

Points of interest for the child:

- Counting the beads.
- Laying out the pattern of the multiples.
- Noting the beads in a pattern.
- The increasing size of each pattern.

Pratice at home resource, click here

## Simple Dividsion (single digit)

Subject: Math

Purpose of Materials:

- To reinforce the concept of the process of subtraction.
- To teach basic subtraction facts in concrete form.
- To prepare for subtraction in abstract form.

Control of Error:

- Seeing the numbers on the strips not matching those of the equation.
- Seeing that the answer on the Control chart does not match that of the written equation.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing red, blue and brown stairs.
- Finding the answer to an equation to the left of blue strip.
- Writing the equation.
- Reading the equation.
- Verifying answer with the Control chart I.

## Small Hexagon Box

Subject: Sensorial

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Development of visual discrimination of plane forms.
- To show the various plane figures included in a hexagon.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation for mathematics in the area of geometry.
- Langauge Development – Triangle, Hexagon, Rhombus, Trapezoid.

Control of Error:

- If the black lines are not mapped, the shapes presented cannot be made.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing all the interesting shapes.

Video Resource:

## Smelling Jar

Subject: Sensorial

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Development of the olfactory sense.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation for language.
- Language Development – descriptive words pertaining to the scents.

Variations to use the Material:

- Matching pictures of flowers, spices, etc. with the smelling box, which has the same scent as the object pictured.
- Placing flowers, spices, etc. in the environment and asking the child to match these with smelling box which has the same scent.

Control of Error:

- Seeing the color coding on the bottom doesn’t match.

Points of interest for the child:

- Matching the smells.
- Familiarity of smells they recognize.

## Sorting

Subject: Language

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Order
- Concentration
- Coordination
- Independence

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Learning to sort or match items.

Control of Error:

- An item in the wrong dish.

Points of interest for the child:

- The items sorted according to the common factor.

## Sound Box 1-b,c,t,a,n,s

Subject: Language

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Development of visual discrimination.
- To see which direction the letters are oriented.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation for reading and writing.

Control of Error:

- Seeing the letter does not match the letter on the card.
- Hearing the first sound of the letters and matching them to its objects/pictures.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing the letters match.
- Feeling the shape of the letter.
- Matching the objects to the letter names.

## Sound Box 2- r,f,m,i,h

Subject: Language

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Development of visual discrimination.
- To see which direction the letters are oriented.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation for reading and writing.

Control of Error:

- Seeing the letter does not match the letter on the card.
- Hearing the first sound of the letters and matching them to its objects/pictures.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing the letters match.
- Feeling the shape of the letter.
- Matching the objects to the letter names.

## Sound Box 3- p,d,g,o,j

Subject: Language

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Development of visual discrimination.
- To see which direction the letters are oriented.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation for reading and writing.

Control of Error:

- Seeing the letter does not match the letter on the card.
- Hearing the first sound of the letters and matching them to its objects/pictures.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing the letters match.
- Feeling the shape of the letter.
- Matching the objects to the letter names.

## Sound Box 4- k,v,e,l,x

Subject: Language

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Development of visual discrimination.
- To see which direction the letters are oriented.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation for reading and writing.

Control of Error:

- Seeing the letter does not match the letter on the card.
- Hearing the first sound of the letters and matching them to its objects/pictures.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing the letters match.
- Feeling the shape of the letter.
- Matching the objects to the letter names.

## Sound Box 5- q, u,w,z,y

Subject: Langauge

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Development of visual discrimination.
- To see which direction the letters are oriented.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation for reading and writing.

Control of Error:

- Seeing the letter does not match the letter on the card.
- Hearing the first sound of the letters and matching them to its objects/pictures.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing the letters match.
- Feeling the shape of the letter.
- Matching the objects to the letter names.

## Sound Cylinders

Subject: Sensorial

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Development of the auditory sense.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation for phonics.
- Language Development – Loud, Soft, Loudest, Softest.

Variation to use of Material:

- Grade the cylinders from loudest to softest.
- Place the two sets of cylinders on different tables, some distance apart. Ask the child to shake a cylinder of one set and go to the other set and find the matching sound.
- Have the child identify other sounds in the room by closing his eyes and telling the sound she hears.

Control of Error:

- Child recognizes that the sounds are not the same.

Points of interest for the child:

- Listening to the different sounds.
- Shaking the cylinders to make a sound.
- Seeing the cylinders paired.

## Spindle Box

Subject:

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- To associate quantity with symbol.
- To learnt the single entities which make up numerals.
- To introduce the concept of zero.
- To learn the natural sequence of the numerals by looking at the printed numerals on the box.
- To develop the idea that each quantity can be made up of loose units which when taken together are called a “set”.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation for the decimal system.
- Order, coordination, concentration and independence.

Control of Error:

- Seeing spindles left over in container.
- Counting the spindles to see that they correspond to the symbol.
- Placing a spindle in the 0 compartment.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing any empty compartment.
- Noting the quantity that corresponds to the symbol.
- Feeling the increasing quantity formed in the hand by the spindles.
- Seeing sets.
- Seeing that there are no spindles left in the container.
- Seeing that 0 gets no spindles.

## Sponging

Subject: Practical Life

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Order
- Concentration
- Coordination
- Independence

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Learning to use sponging techniques in further exercises and in mopping up real spills.

Purpose of Materials:

- Putting more than one glass of water in to left hand bowl; the bowl will be difficult to carry and spills are certain.
- Squeezing water anywhere other than in to right hand bowl.
- Letting the sponge drip on the mat, tray or table.
- Seeing water left in left hand bowl.
- Spilling water while carrying bowls to the sink.
- Leaving excess water in the sponge.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing the sponge soak up the water. Squeezing the water out of the sponge.
- Feeling that the sponge is heavy when it is full of water, light when squeezed dry.
- Seeing left hand bowl become empty as right hand bowl is filled.
- Carrying bowls to the sink and emptying it without spilling any water.

## Spooning/Scooping

Subject: Practical Life

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Order
- Concentration
- Coordination
- Independence

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Learning to use a spoon.
- Strengthening of hand muscles in preparation for writing.
- Language Development – Full, Empty, Spoon, Ladle

Extensions:

- Spooning/scooping with measuring spoons.
- Spooning and stirring.
- Ladling liquid.

Points of interest for the child:

- Attractive materials.
- Attractions of doing something adults do.
- Using glass and china bowls.

## Story Problems

Subject: Math

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- To connect the arithmetic problems to real life and illustrate practical problems.
- To encourage abstract thinking and being able to decide what operation to use after reading the problem.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- To reinforce reading.

Control of Error:

- The child’s own knowledge of the process of arithmetic.

**T**

## Teen Board

Subject: Math

Purpose of Materials:

- To learn the names and sequence of the numbers 11-19.
- To associate quantity and symbol of the teens.
- To learn the change from 19-20.

Control of Error:

- Seeing a numeral out of order.
- Seeing that a quantity and numeral do not match.
- Seeing a unit card placed on top of a 1 instead a 0.
- Seeing a quantity of beads or numeral left over.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing all ten’s on both boards with a blank at the bottom of the second board.
- Seeing teens constructed from one colored bead bar and one golden 10 bar.
- Hearing the new terms, “eleven, twelve, thirteen, etc.” replacing one 10, 2 tens etc.
- Seeing a new number created by adding a unit card to the ten.
- Sliding the unit card on top of the zero.
- Noting the growing lengths of the unit bars in relation to the 10 bar.

## Tens Board (1-99)

Subject: Math

Purpose of Materials:

- To learn the names and sequence of numbers 10-99.
- To reinforce association of quantity and symbol of the 10’s.
- To learn that numerals 1-9 added to larger numerals can make a variety of numbers.
- To prepare the child for linear counting.
- To prepare for the four operations and the bank game.
- To reinforce knowledge of the place value of zero.

Control of Error:

- Seeing a numeral out of order in stack or row.
- Seeing that a quantity and numeral do not match.
- Seeing a unit card placed on top of a 1, 2, etc. symbol instead over a zero.
- Seeing a quantity of beads left over.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing the quantity and symbol match.
- Seeing only 10 bars used in Step I.
- Seeing the quantity increase in Step II.
- Seeing ten, twenty, thirty, forty, through 90 on both boards with a blank space at the bottom of the second board.
- Hearing terms, twenty, thirty, forty etc.
- Seeing a new number created by placing a unit card over the zero.
- Sliding the unit card over the zero.

## Thermic Tablets

Subject: Sensorial

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Development of the thermic sense.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation for language.

Extensions:

- Lead the blindfolded child by hand and bring him around the room. Make him/her touch different objects and ask what it is made of: metal, wood, etc.

Variations:

- Have the blindfolded child touch one of the tablets. Have the child remove the blindfold and ask him to go get its partner from the set which is on the rug.

Control of Error:

- Visual – seeing that two tablets don’t match when blindfold is removed.

Points of interest for the child:

- Feeling the differences in temperature.

## Tonging/Tweezing

Subject: Practical Life

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Order
- Concentration
- Coordination
- Independence

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Development of the fine muscle coordination of a “pinching action.”
- Language Development – Tong, Tweezer

Variations:

- Using salad tongs
- Chopsticks
- Strawberry huller

Control of Error:

- Seeing the objects spilled on the tray or on the floor.
- Seeing that all of the objects start in one container.

Points of interest for the child:

- The different types and sizes of tools and objects.

## Triangle Box

Subject: Sensorial

Purpose of Materials:

- Development of the visual discrimination of the plane form.
- To show the various triangles contained in an equilateral triangle.
- Preparation for mathematics in the area of geometry.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing shapes come together and naming them.
- Seeing the black lines mapped to bring about a new shape.

## Trinomial Cube

Subject: Sensorial

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Development of visual discrimination in a three dimensional form.
- Development of concentration.

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Preparation for the mathematical concepts involved in the trinomial theorem.

Control of error:

- The size of the box is such that the prisms will fit only if they are placed correctly.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing the pattern painted on the box lid.
- Seeing the pattern repeated on the top and sides of the lid.
- Seeing the repetition of the pattern on each layer.
- Noticing the color, size and shape of the various cubes and prisms.

Pratice at home resource, click here

**U**

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**V**

## Verbs

Subject: Langauge

Purpose of Materials:

- To learn the function of the verb.
- To prepare for sentence analysis and grammar.
- To prepare for sentence composition.

Control of Error:

- Seeing a verb placed under noun label at top of the rug and vice versa.
- Seeing a verb placed in front of a noun instead of behind it.
- The directress.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing and hearing that words of action are called verbs.
- Learning the sentence structure.
- Developing new vocabulary.
- Identifying verbs in sentences or everyday conversation.

**W**

## Wet Pouring

Subject: Practical Life

Direct Purpose of Materials:

- Order
- Concentration
- Coordination
- Independence

Indirect Purpose of Materials:

- Eye-hand coordination. Learning to pour and measure.
- Language Development – Measuring Cup, Funnel, Liquid

Variation:

- Using a funnel to pour liquids.

Control of Error:

- Child seeing that the water is poured in the container and not on the tray.

Points of interest for the child:

- Seeing one large cup fill smaller cups.
- Movement from left to right.

**X**

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**Y**

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**Z**

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***Works Cited and Other Resources**

The International Montessori Index